I really appreciated the explanation about how the roots of policing lie in oppression based out of the slave patrols. Unfortunately, the idea of assumed criminality is embedded in our policing approaches and so many everyday approaches of white people. This is particularly painful for me when you look at this history next to the current incarceration rates for black men in this country. When black people are systemically red lined to live in certain areas, forcing them to attend poor schools, and unable to find work that pays a living wage they have been prevented from accessing that which America purports itself to be as a land of opportunity. This often results in incarceration rather than more holistic approaches including mental health support, drug and addiction rehab, restorative justice, etc. It will completely shift the social order and make many white people uncomfortable, but it is long past due for us to re-imagine our approaches to policing, red lining, educational access for all, and assumptions of criminality.